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Workers at the B.C.C. factory, Pudong, c.1932.

Workers at the B.C.C. factory, Pudong, c.1932.

Ep01-630.  © 2013 Adrienne Livesey, Elaine Ryder and Irene Brien.

Another nicely-composed shot, of factory hands gathered outside a plant office, probably taken from inside the printing department. British American Tobacco was the republican Chinese state’s single biggest taxpayer. It faced stiff competition in the cigarette market from Chinese-owned firms, which marketed their wares as ‘National Products’, and labelled buyers of British or other foreign goods as unpatriotic. Labour relations in Pudong could be difficult too because the area – and the unions – were largely controlled by very powerful gangsters.‚Äč