Research Theme 4
Although people were central to the life of any port, there is very little archaeological evidence for the inhabitants of Portus, or indeed many Roman Mediterranean ports, aside from occasional tombstones. Anthropological analyses of c. 43 inhumation burials of c. 6th c AD date from our excavations points to a predominantly male population involved in heavy physical labour with a heavy carbohydrate diet - a finding borne out from analyses of 3rd c AD burials nearby. On-going oxygen isotope evidence is investigating the possible origins of these people, as well as their foodstuffs. An idea of their cultural practices is coming from the table-wares and kitchen wares that they used, as well as from chance finds of rings and other personal possessions.
EP01-201 ©2013 Adrienne Livesey, Elaine Ryder and Irene Brien.
1931: An early ‘selfie’: Jack was at work in the BCC Printing Department when he took this photograph in a mirror, one of several self portraits which show how far he thought of himself as a photographer, not simply a snapshotter.
EP02-124. © 2013 Adrienne Livesey, Elaine Ryder and Irene Brien.
BCC’s designers at work. On the wall at the rear is a poster advertising ‘Jinbu’ – ‘Progress’ – cigarettes: two modern young women, smoking, ride a wheelbarrow. Just above them an aircraft can be glimpsed, climbing skywards. Tobacco advertising proved a powerful driving force in the development of a new urban Chinese visual culture. Ephgrave systematically photographed these talented, and now well-known, artists at work, and also documented the company’s modern printing and photographic machinery.
Ep02-123. © 2013 Adrienne Livesey, Elaine Ryder and Irene Brien.
1929: Framed by two of the BCC plant’s buildings, this shot shows an ocean liner, being passed by the Libia, an Italian warship. Ephgrave took care to catch the angles of the staircases and of the plant’s sheds, composing an almost abstract study out of the technologies of power, coercion and capital.
Ep01-630. © 2013 Adrienne Livesey, Elaine Ryder and Irene Brien.
Another nicely-composed shot, of factory hands gathered outside a plant office, probably taken from inside the printing department. British American Tobacco was the republican Chinese state’s single biggest taxpayer. It faced stiff competition in the cigarette market from Chinese-owned firms, which marketed their wares as ‘National Products’, and labelled buyers of British or other foreign goods as unpatriotic. Labour relations in Pudong could be difficult too because the area – and the unions – were largely controlled by very powerful gangsters.
EP01-013. ©2013 Adrienne Livesey, Elaine Ryder and Irene Brien
The first prints in the albums were not taken by Ephgrave, but date from 1927, and were given to him by British military pilots serving with the 10,000-strong Shanghai Defence Force, sent to head off a feared Chinese nationalist assault on the foreign-controlled (and British dominated) International Settlement. A biplane flies over the countryside outside the city. The print has been damaged by the glue used to fix it in the album, but the romance of flight, and of Shanghai re-imagined, still comes through, and surely impelled the then 11-year old to collect the images.
Ep01-004. © 2013 Adrienne Livesey, Elaine Ryder and Irene Brien.
The same year and source: the riverside ‘Bund’, and wide Avenue Edward VII which marked the boundary of the International Settlement, top and the French concession, to the left. The crowded river and the meteorological signal tower remind us that Shanghai was a city on and of the water, a key point in global maritime networks; the imported cars on the streets exemplify its ostentatious modernity. The War Memorial, facing the end of Ave Edward VII locates foreign Shanghai in the European world, but the Shanghai Club, the second building north along the Bund places it in the British orbit, for this was the informal headquarters of the British presence.
EP01-394 ©2013 Adrienne Livesey, Elaine Ryder and Irene Brien.
1932: The beauty of the flight turned ugly: the wreckage of a military aircraft amongst the ruins of Hongqiao airfield, west of the International Settlement, part of the area that bore the brunt of the February 1932 war between Chinese and Japanese forces. Most Europeans supported the Japanese at this point, thinking that Chinese nationalism needed a check. Ephgrave took a camera into these blasted suburbs, recording the harrying of his city's surrounds.
Ep01-736. © 2013 Adrienne Livesey, Elaine Ryder and Irene Brien.
Shanghai industry was often a site of strife, of anti-imperialist activism, and violent responses, as well as struggles over economic issues. BCC was a particular site of unrest. ‘Down with all imperialist running dogs’ starts the hand-written poster on the left, posted during one of a series of strikes in 1933: ‘We demand that the plant implements the Factory Law’ demand the larger characters. The sequence of photographed wall posters of which this was a part, suggests that Ephgrave was probably drawn to the striking visual impression these posters make.